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    1 Performance Tuning Overview

    Introduction to Performance Tuning

    Performance Planning

    Instance Tuning

    Performance Principles.


    The Symptoms and the Problems.

    When to Tune .

    Proactive Monitoring

    Bottleneck Elimination

    SQL Tuning

    Query Optimizer and Execution Plans

    Introduction to Performance Tuning Features and Tools

    Automatic Performance Tuning Features.

    Additional Oracle Database Tools

    V$ Performance Views

    2 Designing and Developing for Performance

    Oracle Methodology

    Understanding Investment Options

    Understanding Scalability

    What is Scalability?

    System Scalability

    Factors Preventing Scalability

    System Architecture

    Hardware and Software Components

    Hardware Components.



    I/O Subsystem.


    Software Components.

    Managing the User Interface

    Implementing Business Logic

    Managing User Requests and Resource Allocation

    Managing Data and Transactions

    Configuring the Right System Architecture for Your Requirements.

    Application Design Principles

    Simplicity In Application Design.

    Data Modeling

    Table and Index Design.

    Appending Columns to an Index or Using Index-Organized Tab

    Using a Different Index Type.

    B-Tree Indexes .

    Bitmap Indexes .

    Function-based Indexes

    Partitioned Indexes

    Reverse Key Indexes.

    Finding the Cost of an Index.

    Serializing within Indexes

    Ordering Columns in an Index

    Using Views

    SQL Execution Efficiency.

    Implementing the Application

    Trends in Application Development

    Workload Testing, Modeling, and Implementation

    Sizing Data.

    Estimating Workloads.

    Extrapolating From a Similar System


    Application Modeling

    Testing, Debugging, and Validating a Design

    Deploying New Applications

    Rollout Strategies.

    Performance Checklist.

    3 Performance Improvement Methods

    The Oracle Performance Improvement Method

    Steps in the Oracle Performance Improvement Method

    A Sample Decision Process for Performance Conceptual Modeling.

    Top Ten Mistakes Found in Oracle Systems.

    Emergency Performance Methods

    Steps in the Emergency Performance Method.

    4 Configuring a Database for Performance

    Performance Considerations for Initial Instance Configuration

    Initialization Parameters.

    Configuring Undo Space

    Sizing Redo Log Files

    Creating Subsequent Tablespaces

    Creating Permanent Tablespaces – Automatic Segment-Space

    Creating Temporary Tablespaces.

    Creating and Maintaining Tables for Optimal Performance

    Table Compression

    Estimating the Compression Factor

    Tuning to Achieve a Better Compression Ratio

    Using Attribute-Clustered Tables

    Reclaiming Unused Space.

    Indexing Data.

    Specifying Memory for Sorting Data.

    Performance Considerations for Shared Servers

    Identifying Contention Using the Dispatcher-Specific Views

    Reducing Contention for Dispatcher Processes.

    Identifying Contention for Shared Servers.

    5 Measuring Database Performance

    About Database Statistics

    Time Model Statistics.

    Active Session History Statistics

    Wait Events Statistics.

    Session and System Statistics.

    Interpreting Database Statistics

    Using Hit Ratios

    Using Wait Events with Timed Statistics

    Using Wait Events without Timed Statistics.

    Using Idle Wait Events.

    Comparing Database Statistics with Other Factors

    Using Computed Statistics.

    6 Gathering Database Statistics

    About Gathering Database Statistics

    Automatic Workload Repository.



    Fixed Baselines.

    Moving Window Baselines

    Baseline Templates.

    Single Baseline Templates

    Repeating Baseline Templates

    Space Consumption.

    Adaptive Thresholds.

    Percentage of Maximum Thresholds

    Significance Level Thresholds

    Managing the Automatic Workload Repository

    Enabling the Automatic Workload Repository

    Managing Snapshots

    User Interfaces for Managing Snapshots

    Creating Snapshots.

    Creating Snapshots Using the Command-Line Interface.

    Dropping Snapshots

    Dropping Snapshots Using the Command-Line Interface

    Modifying Snapshot Settings.

    Modifying Snapshot Settings Using the Command-Line Int

    Managing Baselines.

    User Interface for Managing Baselines.

    Creating a Baseline.

    Creating a Baseline Using the Command-Line Interface.

    Dropping a Baseline

    Dropping a Baseline Using the Command-Line Interface

    Renaming a Baseline

    Renaming a Baseline Using the Command-Line Interface

    Displaying Baseline Metrics

    Displaying Baseline Metrics Using the Command-Line Inte

    Resizing the Default Moving Window Baseline.

    Resizing the Default Moving Window Using the Command

    Managing Baseline Templates.

    User Interfaces for Managing Baseline Templates.

    Creating a Single Baseline Template

    Creating a Single Baseline Template Using the Command

    Creating a Repeating Baseline Template.

    Creating a Repeating Baseline Template Using the Comm

    Dropping a Baseline Template

    Dropping a Baseline Template Using the Command-Line I

    Transporting Automatic Workload Repository Data.

    Extracting AWR Data

    Loading AWR Data.

    Using Automatic Workload Repository Views

    Generating Automatic Workload Repository Reports

    User Interface for Generating an AWR Report.

    Generating an AWR Report Using the Command-Line Interface.

    Generating an AWR Report for the Local Database.

    Generating an AWR Report for a Specific Database

    Generating an Oracle RAC AWR Report for the Local Databas

    Generating an Oracle RAC AWR Report for a Specific Databas

    Generating an AWR Report for a SQL Statement on the Local

    Generating an AWR Report for a SQL Statement on a Specific

    Generating Performance Hub Active Report

    Overview of Performance Hub Active Report.

    About Performance Hub Active Report Tabs

    About Performance Hub Active Report Types

    Command-Line User Interface for Generating a Performance Hub A

    Generating a Performance Hub Active Report Using a SQL Script

    7 Automatic Performance Diagnostics

    Overview of the Automatic Database Diagnostic Monitor

    ADDM Analysis

    Using ADDM with Oracle Real Application Clusters

    Real-Time ADDM Analysis.

    Real-Time ADDM Connection Modes.

    Real-Time ADDM Triggers

    Real-Time ADDM Trigger Controls.

    ADDM Analysis Results.

    Reviewing ADDM Analysis Results: Example

    Setting Up ADDM.

    Diagnosing Database Performance Problems with ADDM

    Running ADDM in Database Mode

    Running ADDM in Instance Mode

    Running ADDM in Partial Mode.

    Displaying an ADDM Report

    Views with ADDM Information

    8 Comparing Database Performance Over Time

    About Automatic Workload Repository Compare Periods Reports

    Generating Automatic Workload Repository Compare Periods Reports

    User Interfaces for Generating AWR Compare Periods Reports

    Generating an AWR Compare Periods Report Using the Command

    Generating an AWR Compare Periods Report for the Local Database

    Generating an AWR Compare Periods Report for a Specific Database

    Generating an Oracle RAC AWR Compare Periods Report

    Generating an Oracle RAC AWR Compare Periods Report for a

    Interpreting Automatic Workload Repository Compare Periods Reports

    Summary of the AWR Compare Periods Report

    Snapshot Sets.

    Host Configuration Comparison

    System Configuration Comparison.

    Load Profile

    Top 5 Timed Events

    Details of the AWR Compare Periods Report

    Time Model Statistics

    Operating System Statistics

    Wait Events.

    Service Statistics.

    SQL Statistics

    Top 10 SQL Comparison by Execution Time.

    Top 10 SQL Comparison by CPU Time.

    Top 10 SQL Comparison by Buffer Gets.

    Top 10 SQL Comparison by Physical Reads.

    Top 10 SQL Comparison by Executions

    Top 10 SQL Comparison by Parse Calls.

    Complete List of SQL Text.

    Instance Activity Statistics.

    Key Instance Activity Statistics

    Other Instance Activity Statistics

    I/O Statistics

    Tablespace I/O Statistics.

    Top 10 File Comparison by I/O

    Top 10 File Comparison by Read Time.

    Top 10 File Comparison by Buffer Waits.

    Advisory Statistics.

    PGA Aggregate Summary.

    PGA Aggregate Target Statistics.

    Wait Statistics

    Buffer Wait Statistics

    Enqueue Activity

    Undo Segment Summary

    Latch Statistics

    Segment Statistics

    Top 5 Segments Comparison by Logical Reads

    Top 5 Segments Comparison by Physical Reads

    Top 5 Segments Comparison by Row Lock Waits.

    Top 5 Segments Comparison by ITL Waits.

    Top 5 Segments Comparison by Buffer Busy Waits

    In-Memory Segment Statistics

    Dictionary Cache Statistics.

    Library Cache Statistics

    Memory Statistics

    Process Memory Summary

    SGA Memory Summary.

    SGA Breakdown Difference.

    Streams Statistics.

    Supplemental Information in the AWR Compare Periods Report.

    init.ora Parameters

    Complete List of SQL Text

    9 Analyzing Sampled Data

    About Active Session History9-1.

    Generating Active Session History Reports

    User Interfaces for Generating ASH Reports.

    Generating an ASH Report Using the Command-Line Interface

    Generating an ASH Report on the Local Database Instance

    Generating an ASH Report on a Specific Database Instance.

    Generating an ASH Report for Oracle RAC

    Interpreting Results from Active Session History Reports

    Top Events.

    Top User Events.

    Top Background Events

    Top Event P1/P2/P3

    Load Profile

    Top Service/Module

    Top Client IDs.

    Top SQL Command Types.

    Top Phases of Execution

    Top SQL.

    Top SQL with Top Events.

    Top SQL with Top Row Sources.

    Top SQL Using Literals.

    Top Parsing Module/Action.

    Complete List of SQL Text

    Top PL/SQL

    Top Java.

    Top Sessions

    Top Sessions

    Top Blocking Sessions

    Top Sessions Running PQs

    Top Objects/Files/Latches

    Top DB Objects.

    Top DB Files.

    Top Latches

    Activity Over Time

    10 Instance Tuning Using Performance Views

    Instance Tuning Steps

    Define the Problem.

    Examine the Host System

    CPU Usage.

    Non-Oracle Processes.

    Oracle Processes.

    Oracle Database CPU Statistics

    Interpreting CPU Statistics.

    Identifying I/O Problems

    Identifying I/O Problems Using V$ Views

    Identifying I/O Problems Using Operating System Monitori

    Identifying Network Issues

    Examine the Oracle Database Statistics

    Setting the Level of Statistics Collection.


    Wait Events.

    Dynamic Performance Views Containing Wait Event Statistics.

    System Statistics.







    Segment-Level Statistics.

    Implement and Measure Change.

    Interpreting Oracle Database Statistics

    Examine Load

    Changing Load

    High Rates of Activity

    Using Wait Event Statistics to Drill Down to Bottlenecks.

    Table of Wait Events and Potential Causes.

    Additional Statistics

    Redo Log Space Requests Statistic

    Read Consistency

    Table Fetch by Continued Row.

    Parse-Related Statistics

    Wait Events Statistics

    Changes to Wait Event Statistics from Past Releases.

    buffer busy waits



    segment header.

    data block.

    undo header.

    undo block

    db file scattered read


    Managing Excessive I/O.

    Inadequate I/O Distribution.

    Finding the SQL Statement executed by Sessions Waiting for I/O

    Finding the Object Requiring I/O.

    db file sequential read


    direct path read and direct path read temp



    Sorts to Disk

    Full Table Scans

    Hash Area Size

    direct path write and direct path write temp



    enqueue (enq:) waits

    Finding Locks and Lock Holders.


    ST enqueue.

    HW enqueue

    TM enqueue.

    TX enqueue.

    events in wait class other.

    free buffer waits




    Cache is Too Small

    Cache Is Too Big for One DBWR

    Consider Multiple Database Writer (DBWR) Processes or I/O S



    Choosing Between Multiple DBWR Processes and I/O Slav

    Idle Wait Events.

    latch events


    Example: Find Latches Currently Waited For.

    Shared Pool and Library Cache Latch Contention

    Unshared SQL.

    Reparsed Sharable SQL

    By Session.

    cache buffers lru chain.

    cache buffers chains

    row cache objects

    log file parallel write

    library cache pin.

    library cache lock

    log buffer space

    log file switch


    log file sync.

    rdbms ipc reply.

    SQL*Net Events.

    SQL*Net message from client.

    Network Bottleneck

    Resource Bottleneck on the Client Process.

    SQL*Net message from dblink

    SQL*Net more data to client.

    Tuning Instance Recovery Performance: Fast-Start Fault Recovery

    About Instance Recovery.

    Cache Recovery (Rolling Forward).

    Transaction Recovery (Rolling Back)

    Checkpoints and Cache Recovery

    How Checkpoints Affect Performance.

    Fast Cache Recovery Tradeoffs

    Configuring the Duration of Cache Recovery: FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET

    Practical Values for FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET.

    Reducing Checkpoint Frequency to Optimize Run-Time Performance

    Monitoring Cache Recovery with V$INSTANCE_RECOVERY

    Tuning FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET and Using MTTR Advisor.

    Calibrate the FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET.

    Determine the Practical Range for FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET

    Determining Lower Bound for FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET

    Determining Upper Bound for FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET

    Selecting Preliminary Value for FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET

    Evaluate Different Target Values with MTTR Advisor

    Enabling MTTR Advisor.

    Using MTTR Advisor

    Viewing MTTR Advisor Results: V$MTTR_TARGET_ADVISORY

    Determine the Optimal Size for Redo Logs

    11 Database Memory Allocation

    About Database Memory Caches and Other Memory Structures

    Database Memory Management Methods

    Automatic Memory Management.

    Automatic Shared Memory Management.

    Manual Shared Memory Management.

    Automatic PGA Memory Management.

    Manual PGA Memory Management.

    Using Automatic Memory Management

    Monitoring Memory Management

    12 Tuning the System Global Area .

    Using Automatic Shared Memory Management

    User Interfaces for Setting the SGA_TARGET Parameter

    Setting the SGA_TARGET Parameter in Oracle Enterprise Manager

    Setting the SGA_TARGET Parameter in the Command-Line Interface

    Setting the SGA_TARGET Parameter.

    Enabling Automatic Shared Memory Management.

    Disabling Automatic Shared Memory Management

    Sizing the SGA Components Manually

    SGA Sizing Unit

    Maximum Size of the SGA.

    Application Considerations.

    Operating System Memory Use.

    Reduce Paging

    Fit the SGA into Main Memory

    Viewing SGA Memory Allocation.

    Locking the SGA into Physical Memory.

    Allow Adequate Memory to Individual Users.

    Iteration During Configuration

    Monitoring Shared Memory Management

    Configuring the In-Memory Column Store

    About the In-Memory Column Store.

    Performance Benefits of Using the In-Memory Column Store.

    Estimating the Required Size of the In-Memory Column Store.

    Sizing the In-Memory Column Store

    13 Tuning the Database Buffer Cache

    About the Database Buffer Cache

    Configuring the Database Buffer Cache

    Using the V$DB_CACHE_ADVICE View.

    Calculating the Buffer Cache Hit Ratio.

    Interpreting the Buffer Cache Hit Ratio

    Increasing Memory Allocated to the Database Buffer Cache

    Reducing Memory Allocated to the Database Buffer Cache.

    Configuring Multiple Buffer Pools

    Considerations for Using Multiple Buffer Pools

    Random Access to Large Segments.

    Oracle Real Application Cluster Instances

    Using Multiple Buffer Pools

    Using the V$DB_CACHE_ADVICE View for Individual Buffer Pools.

    Calculating the Buffer Pool Hit Ratio for Individual Buffer Pools.

    Examining the Buffer Cache Usage Pattern.

    Examining the Buffer Cache Usage Pattern for All Segments

    Examining the Buffer Cache Usage Pattern for a Specific Segments

    Configuring the KEEP Pool

    Configuring the RECYCLE Pool.

    Configuring the Redo Log Buffer

    Sizing the Redo Log Buffer

    Using Redo Log Buffer Statistics

    Configuring the Database Caching Mode

    Default Database Caching Mode.

    Force Full Database Caching Mode.

    Determining When to Use Force Full Database Caching Mode

    Verifying the Database Caching Mode.

    14 Tuning the Shared Pool and the Large Pool

    About the Shared Pool

    Benefits of Using the Shared Pool.

    Shared Pool Concepts.

    Library Cache Concepts

    Data Dictionary Cache Concepts

    SQL Sharing Criteria.

    Using the Shared Pool

    Use Shared Cursors.

    Use Single-User Logon and Qualified Table Reference

    Use PL/SQL.

    Avoid Performing DDL Operations.

    Cache Sequence Numbers

    Control Cursor Access.

    Controlling Cursor Access Using OCI.

    Controlling Cursor Access Using Oracle Precompilers

    Controlling Cursor Access Using SQLJ

    Controlling Cursor Access Using JDBC

    Controlling Cursor Access Using Oracle Forms

    Maintain Persistent Connections

    Configuring the Shared Pool

    Sizing the Shared Pool.

    Using Library Cache Statistics

    Using the V$LIBRARYCACHE View

    Calculating the Library Cache Hit Ratio.

    Viewing the Amount of Free Memory in the Shared Pool.

    Using Shared Pool Advisory Statistics

    About the V$SHARED_POOL_ADVICE View.

    About the V$LIBRARY_CACHE_MEMORY View.


    Using Dictionary Cache Statistics.

    Increasing Memory Allocated to the Shared Pool.

    Reducing Memory Allocated to the Shared Pool

    Deallocating Cursors

    Caching Session Cursors.

    About the Session Cursor Cache

    Enabling the Session Cursor Cache.

    Sizing the Session Cursor Cache.

    Sharing Cursors.

    About Cursor Sharing

    Forcing Cursor Sharing.

    Keeping Large Objects to Prevent Aging.

    Configuring the Reserved Pool

    Sizing the Reserved Pool

    Increasing Memory Allocated to the Reserved Pool.

    Reducing Memory Allocated to the Reserved Pool

    Configuring the Large Pool

    Configuring the Large Pool for Shared Server Architecture.

    Configuring the Large Pool for Parallel Query

    Sizing the Large Pool.

    Limiting Memory Use for User Sessions

    Reducing Memory Use Using Three-Tier Connections

    15 Tuning the Result Cache

    About the Result Cache

    Server Result Cache Concepts

    Benefits of Using the Server Result Cache.

    Understanding How the Server Result Cache Works.

    How Results are Retrieved in a Query.

    How Results are Retrieved in a View.

    Client Result Cache Concepts.

    Benefits of Using the Client Result Cache

    Understanding How the Client Result Cache Works.

    Configuring the Result Cache

    Configuring the Server Result Cache.

    Sizing the Server Result Cache Using Initialization Parameters

    Managing the Server Result Cache Using DBMS_RESULT_CA

    Viewing Memory Usage Statistics for the Server Result Ca

    Flushing the Server Result Cache.

    Configuring the Client Result Cache

    Setting the Result Cache Mode

    Requirements for the Result Cache.

    Read Consistency Requirements

    Query Parameter Requirements.

    Restrictions for the Result Cache

    Specifying Queries for Result Caching

    Using SQL Result Cache Hints

    Using the RESULT_CACHE Hint

    Using the NO_RESULT_CACHE Hint

    Using the RESULT_CACHE Hint in Views.

    Using Result Cache Table Annotations

    Using the DEFAULT Table Annotation.

    Using the FORCE Table Annotation.

    Monitoring the Result Cache

    16 Tuning the Program Global Area .

    About the Program Global Area

    Work Area Sizes.

    Sizing the Program Global Area

    Configuring Automatic PGA Memory Management.

    Setting the Initial Value for PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET.

    Monitoring Automatic PGA Memory Management.

    Using the V$PGASTAT View

    Using the V$PROCESS View.

    Using the V$PROCESS_MEMORY View.


    Using the V$WORKAREA_ACTIVE View.

    Using the V$SQL_WORKAREA View.


    Enabling Automatic Generation of PGA Performance Advisory

    Using the V$PGA_TARGET_ADVICE View.


    Using the V$SYSSTAT and V$SESSTAT Views

    Tutorial: How to Tune PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET

    Limiting the Size of the Program Global Area



    17 I/O Configuration and Design

    About I/O

    I/O Configuration

    Lay Out the Files Using Operating System or Hardware Striping.

    Requested I/O Size.

    Concurrency of I/O Requests

    Alignment of Physical Stripe Boundaries with Block Size Bound

    Manageability of the Proposed System.

    Manually Distributing I/O

    When to Separate Files

    Tables, Indexes, and TEMP Tablespaces

    Redo Log Files

    Archived Redo Logs

    Three Sample Configurations.

    Stripe Everything Across Every Disk.

    Move Archive Logs to Different Disks.

    Move Redo Logs to Separate Disks

    Oracle Managed Files

    Choosing Data Block Size



    Block Size Advantages and Disadvantages

    I/O Calibration Inside the Database

    Prerequisites for I/O Calibration.

    Running I/O Calibration

    I/O Calibration with the Oracle Orion Calibration Tool

    Introduction to the Oracle Orion Calibration Tool.

    Orion Test Targets

    Orion for Oracle Administrators.

    Getting Started with Orion

    Orion Input Files.

    Orion Parameters.

    Orion Required Parameter

    Orion Optional Parameters.

    Orion Command Line Samples.

    Orion Output Files

    Orion Sample Output Files

    Orion Troubleshooting

    18 Managing Operating System Resources

    Understanding Operating System Performance Issues

    Using Operating System Caches.

    Asynchronous I/O

    FILESYSTEMIO_OPTIONS Initialization Parameter

    Limiting Asynchronous I/O in NFS Server Environments.

    Memory Usage.

    Buffer Cache Limits.

    Parameters Affecting Memory Usage.

    Using Operating System Resource Managers.

    Resolving Operating System Issues

    Performance Hints on UNIX-Based Systems.

    Performance Hints on Windows Systems

    Performance Hints on HP OpenVMS Systems

    Understanding CPU

    Resolving CPU Issues

    Finding and Tuning CPU Utilization.

    Checking Memory Management.

    Paging and Swapping .

    Oversize Page Tables .

    Checking I/O Management.

    Checking Network Management.

    Checking Process Management.

    Scheduling and Switching .

    Context Switching .

    Starting New Operating System Processes.

    Managing CPU Resources Using Oracle Database Resource Manager

    Managing CPU Resources Using Instance Caging


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